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Brexit’s “6 Ws” – Part 1: What happened before David Cameron called the EU referendum

Following Greece’s financial crisis caused by massive tax avoidance, the European Union decided to protect its member states from future fiscal instability by terminating tax-dodging practices from the EU companies or citizens, which ultimately lead to Brexit.

To develop the fiscal converging criteria for all European Union members and establishing the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), in the year 1992, the leaders of twelve member states of the European Economic Community sign the Treaty of Maastricht.

Seven years later, the EU launches its joint currency, and in the year 2001, Greece replaces the Greek Drachma with the EURO currency, becoming a member of the Eurozone.

In the year 2009, the Socialist leader, George Papandreou becomes Prime Minister of Greece and raises concerns about Greece’s budget deficit, which due to low tax revenues, exceeded 12% of the GDP, spiralling Greece’s borrowing costs that lead to the degradation of its national credit scoring status.

To prevent Greece from bankruptcy, in the year 2010, the European Union decided to loan Greece 100 billion euros over three years, under the condition that government of their south-eastern member state increases taxes and implements harsh austerity measures of spending cuts of up to 30 billion euros.

This provoked massive outrage throughout Greece, and rather than destroying the businesses and properties of the Greek tax-dodgers responsible for the financial crisis, the protesters ended up destroying public property and injuring the police officers who also suffered from the austerity measures.

Lagarde’s list

In an attempt to reveal the culprit behind Greece’s financial crisis,  in the year 2010, the French  Finance Minister at the time, Christine Lagarde provided Greek authorities information on the massive tax avoidance perpetrated by Greek wealthy individuals and companies.

The “Lagarde List” disclosed critical information about the massive tax avoidance that accounts for almost €27 billion of uncollected annual tax revenues, which almost equals to the EU annual rescue loan.

Therefore, Greece’s financial crisis would have never occurred, if its government clamped down on tax avoidance, and the EU wouldn’t have to cough out the millions to save its Mediterranean member state.

Yet, despite the shocking insights revealed by the “Lagarde List”, according to The Guardian, the Greek ex-finance minister George Papaconstantinou, a person renowned for his commitment to modernise his country’s fiscal policies intervened to remove his three relatives from the list of individuals implicated in tax avoidance.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jan/07/greece-christine-lagarde

According to Reuters, rather than summoning the wealthy tax-dodgers to pay their due taxes, a Greek prosecutor charged the editor the weekly magazine “Hot Doc”, Costas Vaxevanis, for violating data privacy laws, under the pretext that he published the names of over 2,000 wealthy Greek citizens, who were implicated in tax-avoiding practices and included in the “Lagarde List”.

Greece’s failure to prevent tax – avoidance, alarmed and prompted Brussels, to initiated concrete steps and curb future tax avoidance, which would ensure the protection of the Eurozone, from future fiscal crisis among its member states.

G20 pledges tough measures for tax havens

According to The Guardian, ahead of the 2011 G20 Summit held in Cannes, “The Taskforce on Financial Integrity and Economic Development”, an international NGO, called upon the G20 summit for much tougher global measures to tackle tax avoidance, demanding concrete action that will ensure transparency and economic justice by ending the corrosive financial and the fiscal system.

Speaking at the G20 summit press conference, the French President Nicola Sarkozy declared that tax havens will no longer be tolerated and countries which continue to protect them, as the United Kingdom, will be outcast from the developed economies.

https://uk.ambafrance.org/President-Sarkozy-s-G20-summit

Six months after the G20 summit, the European Commission decided to develop their strategy for accomplishing the following objectives:

1.Improve action to protect Member States’ tax revenues against the challenges of aggressive financial and tax jurisdictions and unfair competition deriving from aggressive tax planning.

2.Reduce opportunities for harmful tax practices including exploitation of mismatches between tax systems and better ensure that good governance in the tax area is, in coherence with other EU policies, efficiently addressed on as broad a geographical basis as possible.

3.Achieve a coordinated approach at EU level in terms of incentives and sanctions towards cooperative and uncooperative jurisdictions, to add leverage in convincing third countries to enhance good governance.

4.Improve coordination of the EU MS’ position in international fora dealing with non-cooperative jurisdictions.

EU Anti Tax Avoidance Directive

European Commission revealed its plan to tackle tax avoidance within its member states on 15 May 2012, and eight weeks later, the BBC reported that David Cameron, the British Prime Minister, who ruled out the possibility of an EU referendum, suddenly changed his mind on the EU referendum and he is considering of holding it but only when the time is right!

Three weeks after the European Commission revealed its draft EU Anti Tax Avoidance Directive, David Cameron concurred that the right time has come for him to call the EU referendum.

https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-35621079
European Commission revealed their proposal for their new EU Anti Tax Avoidance Directive on 28 January 2016, and on 20 February 2016, David Cameron announced the June date for UK’s vote on whether to stay or leave the European Union.


This is Part 1 of the extensive research on Brexit, which focuses on the critical “6 Ws”, such as:

1. Why Brexit happened?

2. What happened that led to Brexit?

3. When did Brexit take place?

4. Who supported Brexit?

5. Where did Brexit take place?

6. How was Brexit facilitated?

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